In India, sick Hindu patients sometimes visit mosques to get cured by the incantation of Muslim devotees coming out of mosques after prayer. The Hindu patients have to wait outside the gate, as they are not allowed inside the mosque, because the Quran (9:28) calls them ‘Najees’ (i.e. Unclean). In some cases, Muslims can be generous enough to allow them inside the premises, but not inside the mosque. It is rather bafling that Hindus, more than 85% of the population in India, despite having hundreds of thousands temples to pray in, visit mosques in seeking ‘treatment’ for their illness. Ironically, Muslims themselves rarely visit mosques to seek cure for ailments. Is it because Muslims know well about the outcome of such incantations at mosques.
RUQYA: A COPIED VERSION OF PAGANS
This type of incantation is called ‘RUQYA’ in Arabic. As usual, the idea of ‘Ruqya’ was not Muhammad's own, but copied from the Pagans and Jews. Hadiths attest the fact that the Pagans and Jews of Muhammad's time used to practice ‘Ruqya’ to treat the sick. (Malik 50:50.4.11, Sahih Muslim 26:5457-58, Sahih Al-Bukhari 3:36:476, 7:71:632-633,645)
Muhammad not only copied the practice of Ruqya from Jews and Pagans, but also modified it to suit his ever ugly ideas and evil intentions.
This article investigate the origin of ‘Ruqya’ as practised by Muslims around the world, and the modifications that Muhammad made to it.
There are multiple references on this subject in authentic Islamic scriptures, namely the Sahih Hadith. Although, the Jews were more advanced in learning as compared to the Pagan Arabs, they used to practice the superstitious custom of ‘Ruqya’ for healing purposes by chanting passages from their holy Torah.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that Abu Bakr as-Siddiq visited A'isha while she had a [health] complaint and a jewish woman was making incantation (ruqya) for her. Abu Bakr said, "Do it (incantation) with the Book of Allah." (Malik 50:50.4.11)
In mimicking the Jewish tradition or not, the Pagans of Arabia also practised healing incantations:
'Auf b. Malik Ashja'i reported We practiced incantation (Ruqya) in the pre-Islamic days and we said: Allah's Messenger. what is your opinion about it? He said: Let me know your incantation and said: There is no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism. (Sahih Muslim 26:5457)
There are multiple other references in Ahadith, informing us that Ruqya was practiced by Muhammad’s tribes in pre-Islamic days. (see Sahih Muslim 26:5449, 5452, 5457, 5458; Sahih Al-Bukhari 3:36:476, 7:71:617, 632, 633, 637 & 645)
Prophet Muhammad not only found the practise of Ruqya perfectly fine for Muslims, but also practised it himself:
Narrated Ibn Abbas: The Prophet I prostrated while reciting An-Najm and with him prostrated the Muslims, the pagans, the jinns, and all human beings. (Sahih Al-Bukhari 2:19:177)
Thanks to the realities of the time, Ruqya or faith-healing was a common ritual among Arab commuinities, probably among all peoples of the world. And Muhammad readily picked up those superstitious ideas and practices and incorporated them into Islam. And Muslims, in emulation of Muhammad, continue practising them, incantation healing for ‘Ruqya’ being one such superstition.
Muhammad, proudly and rightly called an illiterate Prophet by Allah, had no positive creatvity. So, after claiming that Allah had bestowed upon him the prophethood for preaching a monotheistic religion, he was simply copying what the Jews, Pagans and other communities were practising. But he also wanted to show that his so-called religion was superior to other people's. So, while copying the rituals of others, he added slight modifications in them to suit his purpose. The following discussions will familiarize readers about how he copied the rituals of the Pagans and Jews:
MUSLIM PRACTICE OF PERFORMING ‘SAI’ DURING HAJ AND UMRAH WAS A PRE-ISLAMIC PRACTICE:
Narrated 'Urwa: I asked 'Aisha (regarding the Sai between As Safa and Al-Marwa). She said, "Out of reverence to the idol Manat which was placed in Al-Mushailal, those who used to assume Ihram in its name, used not to perform Sai between As-Safa and Al-Marwa, so Allah revealed: 'Verily! The As-Safa and Al-Marwa (two mountains at Mecca) are among the symbols of Allah.' (2.158). Thereupon, Allah's Apostle and the Muslims used to perform Sai (between them) (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 6:60:384)
MUSLIM PRACTICE OF TAWAAF (CIRCUMAMBULATING THE KABA) COPIED FROM PAGANS:
"Umar bin Al-Khattab addressed the Corner (Black Stone) saying, 'By Allah! I know that you are a stone and can neither benefit nor harm. Had I not seen the Prophet touching (and kissing) you, I would never have touched (and kissed) you.' Then he kissed it and said, 'There is no reason for us to do Ramal (in Tawaf) except that we wanted to show off before the pagans, and now Allah has destroyed them.' 'Umar added, '(Nevertheless), the Prophet did that and we do not want to leave it (i.e. Ramal).' (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 2:26:675)
ISLAMIC SACRED MONTHS RAJAB, DHU AL-QA’DA, DHU AL-HIJJA AND MUHARRAM WERE ‘SACRED MONTHS' OF THE PAGANS
Ibn Ishaq page 288: The Quraysh said, ‘Muhammad and his companions have violated the sacred month, shed blood therein, taken booty and captured men.”
So Allah sent down to His Apostle:
They ask thee concerning fighting in the prohibited month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave offence…” (Quran Al-Baqara 2:217)
But when the forbidden months are past then fight and slay the pagans ….” (Quran Al-Tauba 9:5)
FASTING ON ASHURA – COPIED FROM THE JEWS OR THE PAGANS?
‘Ashura’ is the tenth day of the month Muharram on Islamic calendar and Muhammad insisted Muslims to fast on that day. There are ton of evidence in Islamic scriptures that Muhammad copied the Ashura fasting from the Jews. In contrast, the following hadith states that the fasting on Ashura was a Pagan ritual. In this way, the Islamic scriptures deceive the common man:
Ashura Fasting – a Pagan ritual:
Narrated 'Aisha: 'Ashura' (i.e. the tenth of Muharram) was a day on which the tribe of Quraish used to fast in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. The Prophet also used to fast on this day.(Sahih Al-Bukhari 5:172 & 3:116,117 &220)
According to the above hadith the Quraish tribe from which Muhammad belonged; used to fast on the day of Ashura, and Muhammad too used to fast on Ashura, while the following hadith conflicting the above statement.
Ashura Fasting – a Jewish ritual:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’. He asked them about that. They replied, "This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day." The Prophet said, "We have more claim over Moses than you." So, the Prophet fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day). (Sahih al-Bukhari 3:222 & 225)
This hadith makes it clear that Muhammad didn’t know about the term ‘Ashura’ until he migrated to Medina.
ITIKAAF IS A PAGAN PRACTICE. UMAR PRACTICED IT DURING PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD
The Muslim practice of Itikaf observed during the last ten days of Ramadan was also copied from the Pagans:
Umar asked the Prophet "I vowed in the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance to stay in Itikaf for one night in Al-Masjid al-Haram." The Prophet said to him, "Fulfill your vow." (Sahih Al-Bukhari 3:33:248, 258 & 259)
The above hadiths are the few samples that proves the extent of Muhammad’s copying the other people’s rituals. The practice of ‘Ruqya’ is one of it.
RUQYA WAS PRACTICED ONLY AFTER MUHAMMAD'S MIGRATION TO MEDINA
Although, Muhammad copied every ritual from the Pagans with slight alteration, he considered Ruqya as a polytheistic practice, and forbade his companions to maintain distance from it, while he was at Mecca:
MUHAMMAD FORBADE RUQYA FOR THE MUSLIMS
Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported I had a maternal uncle who treated the sting of the scorpion with the help of incantation. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade incantation…” (Sahih Muslim 26:5454, 5456)
Muhammad forbade practicing ‘Ruqya’ to his companions. Of course, he knew the secret of how he fabricated his verses and what healing effect they may have. Moreover, his focus was to encourage his companions to sacrifice their lives for him by engaging in his Jihad raids upon the infidel communities than valuing their lives. He even issued stern warning to his companions, who may quietly practise ‘Ruqya’ on their own:
Allah's Apostle said, "Seventy thousand people of my followers will enter Paradise without accounts, and they are those who do not practice Ar-Ruqya and do not see an evil omen in things, and put their trust in their Lord. (Sahih Al-Bukhari 8:76:479,549, 7:71:648)
Muhammad's ban on ‘Ruqya’ among his followers continued even after his migration to Medina, as he considered the practice polytheistic in nature. But his companions found life difficult without being allowed to practise the important healing ritual, especially becauseit was also a means of earning livelihood for some.
FEEL FREE TO CHEAT NON-MUSLIMS WITH RUQYA AS LONG AS YOU GIVE ME 20% OF YOUR EARNINGS
Muhammad was a short-tempered person, prone to getting angry easily. His companions knew this, but they also knew well what will work to change his mind. Muhammad had extreme weakness toward wealth. The same was true for his companions, who stayed with him only to get a share of the booty from his plundering raids.
Once Muhammad sent a group of his companions to raid some non-Muslims (i.e. for Jihad). On the way they met some Bedouins, whose chief was bitten by scorpion, and the Sahaba were asked whether they knew the art of ‘Ruqya’ as practiced by the Pagans. In spite of Muhammad’s objection, the Sahaba practised it when they the Bedouins agreed to pay a good fee. When Muhammad was informed about it, he smiled and immediately demanded one-fifth share of the fee they recieved by performing ‘Ruqya’.
Some of the companions of the Prophet came across a tribe amongst the tribes of the Arabs, …the chief of that tribe was bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion). They said, (to the companions of the Prophet), "Have you got any medicine with you or anybody who can treat with Ruqya?" The Prophet's companions said, "… we will not treat (your chief) unless you pay us for it." So they agreed to pay them a flock of sheep. One of them (the Prophet's companions) started reciting Surat-al-Fatiha and gathering his saliva and spitting it (at the snake-bite). The patient got cured and his people presented the sheep to them, …. he (Muhammad) smiled and said, "How do you know that Surat-al-Fatiha is a Ruqya? Take it (flock of sheep) and assign a share for me." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 7:71:632)
Similar lengthier hadiths on this topic: Sahih Muslim 26:5458,5460, Sahih Al-Bukhari 3:36:476, 7:71: 632,633,645
DON’T FORGET TO COLLECT THE FEE
When Muhammad was asked by his companions about cheating the Bedouins by ‘Ruqya’, Muhammad replied it was not a big deal so long they collect the fee:
“….He (the Prophet) said: Accept it (fee), for, by my life, some accept it for a worthless charm, but you have done so for a genuine one.” (Abu Dawud: 28:3892)
MEAN PRACTICE OF MUHAMMAD WHILE PERFORMING RUQYA ON NON-MUSLIMS
As performing Ruqya can bring money, Muhammad himself started the cheating business of performing Ruqya upon the Pagans for fees. While he loved the Pagans' money, he could not rid himself of his intense hatred of the Pagans and introduced mean and insulting elements into his ‘Ruqya’, namely spitting on their faces:
Narrated 'Aisha: Allah's Apostle used to read in his Ruqya, "In the Name of Allah" The earth of our land and the saliva of some of us cure our patient with the permission of our Lord." with a slight shower of saliva) while treating with a Ruqya. (Sahih Al-Bukhari 7:71:642)
Muhammad also instructed to his companions to apply this new formula of spitting on non-Muslims while performing Ruqya:
One of them (the Prophet's companions) started reciting Surat-al-Fatiha and gathering his saliva and spitting it (at the snake-bite). (Sahih Al-Bukhari 7:71:632)
Whenever I finished it, I would collect my saliva and spit it out, and he seemed as if he were set free from a bond. (Abu Dawud: 28:3892 & 23:3413)
“….. One of them then went and recited (Suratul-Fatiha): 'All the praises are for the Lord of the Worlds' and puffed over the chief who became all right as if he was released from a chain, and got up and started walking, showing no signs of sickness….” (Sahih Al-Bukhari 3:36:476)
The man went with them (the people of the tribe) and started spitting (on the bite) and reciting Surat-al-Fatiha till the patient was healed and started walking as if he had not been sick. (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 7:71:645)
Most of the Hindu patients who visit mosques in India for healing treatments normally sufferer from fever. So, the Muslim devotees puff it on their faces to ‘heal’ them.
MUHAMMAD FORGETS HIS OWN SUNNA; RECOMMENDS RUQYA TO MUSLIMS
We have noted how vehemently opposed was Muhammad to the practice of Ruqya among his followers. Now when he himself was performing it upon the Pagans for rich profit, he could not prohibit it to his followers, who were so used to the age-old practice:
Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle allowed one of the Ansar families to treat persons who have taken poison and also who are suffering from ear ailment with Ruqya. Anas added: I got myself branded cauterized) for pleurisy, when Allah's Apostle was still alive…” (Sahih Al-Bukhari 7:71:617,637, Sahih Muslim 26:5442, 5443, 5448, 5449 & 5452)
EVIL EYE ON AISHA, MUHAMMAD RECEMMENDS RUQYA
It appears that Muhammad, a very old person, suspected that some men were craving for Aisha's love. So he recommended Ruqya on her:
'A'isha reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace he upon him) commanded me that I should make use of incantation for curing the influence of an evil eye. (Sahih Muslim 26:5445-5449, Sahih Al-Bukhari 7:71:635, Malik 50.2.3, 50.2.4)
RUQYA FOR BEAUTIFICATION OF MUSLIMS
Umm Salama, the wife of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to a small girl in the house of Umm Salama that he had been seeing on her face black stains and told her that that was due to the influence of an evil eye, and he asked that she should be cured with the help of incantation (hoping) that her face should become spotless. (Sahih Muslim 26:5450)
RUQYA FOR SKINNY MUSLIM CHILD
Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) granted sanction to the family of Hazm for incantation (in mitigating the effect of the poison of) the snake, and, he said -to Asma' daughter of 'Umais: What is this that I see the children of my brother lean? Are they not fed properly? She said: No, but they fall under the influence of an evil eye. He said: Use incantation She recited (the words of incantation before him), whereupon he (by approving them) said: Yes, use this incantation for them. (Sahih Muslim 26:5451)
RUQYA FOR LUNACY
We proceeded from the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) and came to a clan of the Arabs.
They said: We have been told that you have brought what is good from this man (I.e.Muhammad). Have you any medicine or a charm, for we have a lunatic in chains?
We said: Yes. Then they brought a lunatic in chains. He said: I recited Surat al-Fatihah over him for three days, morning and evening. Whenever I finished it, I would collect my saliva and spit it out, and he seemed as if he were set free from a bond….” (Abu Dawud 28:3892, 23:3413)
RUQYA FOR SNAKE BITE & SCORPION STING
Narrated Al-Aswad: I asked 'Aisha about treating poisonous stings (a snake-bite or a scorpion sting) with a Ruqya. She said, "The Prophet allowed the treatment of poisonous sting with Ruqya." (Sahih Al-Bukhari 7:71:617,637; Sahih Muslim 26:5442, 5443, 5448, 5449 & 5452)
HOW MUHAMMAD’S SUNNA KEEPS MUSLIMS BACKWARD, BUT DOESN'T APPLY TO RULERS & SCHOLARS
Muslim masses around the world lag behind in education and intellectual endeavours. As a result, they fall behind in economic prosperity. All of this happen due to their practice of Islam. Islam’s 14-century-old doctrines, which they must practise to the letter, holds them back from marching shoulder to shoulder with modernity. The list of ailments illerate Muhammad and his Sahaba treated with Ruqya in the 7th century are still being treated likewise by the poorest of Muslims, who can’t afford the modern treatments due to poverty and illiteracy. The Bedouin communities in Saudi Arabia still practise most of those meaningless treatments. Petro-dollars have no impact on their life. But the rulers and their puppets, the so-called Islamic scholars, despite pretending to follow the footprints of Muhammad, consider Muhammad’s teachings and ideas as garbage. They go to most sophisticated hospitals for treatments.
After initially prohibiting Ruqya, Muhammad himelf got into performing it, because he wanted to cheat the Pagans of their money with this deceitful practice. He also loved the pleasure of spitting on the Pagans faces while performing the ritual. This greedy, deceitful and mean practice of Muhammad continues to be practiced among ignorant Muslims. So, do non-Muslims, at least Hindus in India, continue suffering spitting on their faces in the name of treatments. ‘God’ alone knows how long will non-Muslims continue suffering the insult and humiliation of getting showered with Muslims' holy saliva.
To learn more about Muhammad’s spitting business on his rivals, please read this article.